human papilloma virus

human papilloma virus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on human skin or genital area. Both men and women are almost as susceptible to the virus.

It is worth noting that this type of infection may indicate the formation of malignant tumors. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them only affect the female genital organs.

The World Health Organization has studied HPV - the human papilloma virus so briefly, and found that more than 60% of the people in the world are infected with it. Moreover, some of them are only carriers, and in other cases it manifests itself in the form of papillomatosis of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases the human papilloma virus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

Etiology

About 60% of the world's population are potential carriers of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the motivating factors are:

  • the onset of sexual activity at a very young age;
  • unprotected sex, frequent change of sexual partners;
  • chronic inflammation of the genital area, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • frequent abortions;
  • weak immunity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • non - compliance with personal hygiene rules.

As medical practice shows, women are in the main risk group. The likelihood of getting "such a disease" is quite high in people in the age group of 20-45 years. That is, those who lead an active sex life.

General symptoms

Symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the motivating factor. The disease does not have a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:

  • formation of warts;
  • skin irritation in the genital area;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • redness and partial itching.

At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of skin irritation and itching may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it in any case. With such symptoms, it is best to immediately consult a dermatologist.

Warts are most often seen in the following places:

  • on the skin of the palms, soles;
  • in the genital area;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. For men, the oncogenic factor is much less noticeable.

It is also worth noting that, in the early stages of development, this type of illness practically gives no symptoms. This often results in an oncogenic risk factor for infection.

Pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is only possible if a healthy person has microtrauma of the genitals. In this case, the papillomavirus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to develop.

The incubation period of an oncogenic virus type may last from several months to several years, and show no symptoms. In other words, a person who is already infected may be a carrier and unaware of it.

HPV in women

As already mentioned, women between the ages of 20-45 are most at risk from the virus. But here it is worth noting that those who frequently change sexual partners and have unprotected sex are in the main risk group.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • high oncogenicity;
  • low oncogenicity;
  • non-oncogenic type.

The most dangerous for women 's health is an infection of a high oncogenicity nature. It almost always leads to cancer - a malignant tumor, cervical cancer. The risk of such development of pathology is 90%. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that the disease does not show symptoms in the early stages of development. Occasionally small warts may appear on the palms and soles.

With a type of high oncogenicity infection, warts are formed. These are formations that are similar to warts, but with rough edges. Such formations can appear in the vagina, anus, perineum. Sometimes warts can take the form of bubbles with liquid, which eventually explode and give off an unpleasant odor.

High form of HPV infection can cause vaginal and vulva cancer. In more rare clinical cases, cancer of the nasopharynx is possible. It should be noted that a high form of HPV oncogenicity is almost impossible to completely cure.

papilloma virus in men

Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without any symptoms. It is worth noting that men who frequently change their sexual partner have unprotected sex in the main risk group.

Pathological formations are localized in such places:

  • on the head and shaft of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • sa perineum;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be grouped. They usually do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, itching or burning may accompany them only during intercourse.

This type of virus in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to genital cancer. However, starting treatment on time minimizes the risk of oncogenic disease. Warts caused by the HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. In this way, antiviral drugs are prescribed. Therefore, in the early stages of the development of this type of ailment in men, it can be completely eliminated.

human papilloma virus in women and men

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of HPV infection involves several steps. First, the anamnesis is examined by a doctor and the anamnesis is clarified. If the disease is suspected in women, then a gynecologist should perform the primary examination. Thereafter, the following tests may be prescribed:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • vaginal tissue biopsy;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter makes it possible not only to accurately establish the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, its form of development. If there is a risk of developing oncological disease, then general and biochemical blood test, instrumental research methods are prescribed.

Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix, to identify deep pathological changes.

For men, the diagnosis is about the same picture. After examination by a urologist or surgeon, a referral is given for testing.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis, a competent doctor can prescribe the right course of treatment. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

At present, there is no cure in the drug that can deliberately destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease is taken into account, but also the cause of its occurrence. It is also worth noting that the attending physician should regularly examine someone who is ill or sick with the HPV virus. The papilloma virus can be completely cured only in the early stages. In any case, the risk of developing cancer or malignant tumor formation is always present. The virus is easier to avoid than to get rid of.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following stages:

  • removal of warts or warts;
  • drug therapy to prevent new formations;
  • therapy aimed at strengthening the immune system.

It should be borne in mind that such a treatment program is only applicable if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment program includes drugs to eradicate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in any case. In most cases, broad spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not preclude the recurrence of the disease.

The HPV virus is much more difficult to cure if it has become chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

The human papilloma virus can be treated by a competent specialist. Self-medication is not acceptable here, since the HPV virus is known to be oncogenic. Therefore, in most cases, it is quite difficult to cure. Even surgical removal of genital warts or warts does not exclude their recurrence.

How to properly treat the papillomavirus can only tell a specialist. The use of folk remedies is not enough to cure HPV. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should seek competent medical help immediately.

Cosc

One of the most effective preventative measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development of not only HPV infection in the body, but also cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules should be followed:

  • protected sex only;
  • strengthening the immune system;
  • regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to carefully monitor your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoking. For personal life, if possible, frequent change of sexual partners should be excluded. With symptoms, you should consult a doctor immediately, and not self-medicate.