Papillomavirus or HPV is a microorganism that has many subspecies. Depending on the strain of the virus, certain changes occur in the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs.
HPVs belonging to oncogenic subspecies are particularly dangerous, that is, they increase the risk of developing malignant diseases. Papilloma analysis, performed on time, helps to establish the papillomavirus strain and, as such, receives antiviral treatment, which also prevents cancer.
Causes of HPV
The human papilloma virus is one of the most prevalent viruses in the world.
It is believed that one or more types of this microorganism can be found in almost 90% of the population. HPV is so widely distributed because of its ease of transmission.
The virus is only transmitted from person to person, but in different ways. It is the most basic sexual, and can be traditional or oral or anal sexual contact. HPV can pass from the mother during childbirth to the baby, and often after a while papillomas are found in the baby's mouth and throat.
Papillomavirus is often transmitted through contact, that is, through damaged skin or when certain personal items are used by different people. The microorganism maintains its viability perfectly in a humid and warm environment, so it is easy to own after visiting a bath or pool.
Some aspects of sexual activity increase the risk of infection. Here is its early onset, frequent change of partners, sexually transmitted diseases, abortion in women. In most cases, women are sexually infected with HPV, which doctors combine with anatomical features of the structures of their genital organs.
The papillomavirus does not always appear immediately, in most cases it takes several months and years before its external manifestation on the skin and mucous membranes.
There are a number of motivating factors to blame for the activation of the pathogen, their group includes:
- Pronounced weakening of the immune system. This is observed after serious infectious diseases, after prolonged treatment with antibiotics, often with respiratory diseases.
- Negative effects of long and frequent psycho-emotional stress.
- Presence of chronic diseases of the genital area, urinary organs, digestive tract.
- Bad habits - long term smoking, alcohol abuse.
Activation of the virus accumulates in large quantities in a certain area of the body or mucous membranes and alters the structure and function of the cells located here. The result of this process is the appearance of warts and papillomas.
Particularly dangerous are genital warts appearing on the external genitalia, and in women inside the vagina. Outgrowths on the skin can be single and multiple, often injured, which increases the risk of normal cells being degenerated into atypical cells.
How and why is the human papilloma virus analyzed?
When papillomas appear on the human body, a dermatologist can say for sure that a virus is present in the body of this patient.
But in order for the treatment to be as effective as possible, laboratory diagnostics are needed to determine the type of virus and its size in the body.
Determining the HPV strain is crucial if papillomatous growth is detected:
- On the external genitalia, in women in the vagina and in men on the penis and urethra.
- In the area of throat and mouth.
- around the anus.
Analysis in this case allows you to establish whether the virus belongs to an oncogenic or non-oncogenic group.
This allows the doctor to predict the outcome of the disease and prescribe treatment that prevents the likelihood of malignant lesions. Analysis of the human papilloma virus is needed, and if pre-cancerous conditions are detected, in women it is dysplasia or leukoplakia of the cervix.
Analysis of the papilloma virus is recommended for all women after 30 years. Ideally, it should be taken again once every three or five years. Such a view of human health will enable a person to recognize the development of atypical cells early in their appearance.
To determine HPV in the human body, various diagnostic methods have been developed. The patient takes blood for analysis, scraping and smear in women from the cervical canal and the cervix. In men, cells from the mucous layer of the urethra, the secretion of the prostate, are needed for analysis.
Before you do the analysis, it is recommended to adhere to some rules. Male patients should not urinate for an hour and a half. A woman during the previous evening hygiene should not douche and use bactericidal detergents.
If necessary, if HPV is suspected, a biopsy is performed. That is, a small piece of tissue is taken from the cell transformation area.
Modern medical centers have several methods for detecting HPV in the human body. The following are the most commonly used:
- PCR - polymerase chain reaction. This method is based on DNA detection of human papillomavirus, which makes it possible to detect this microorganism with almost the highest probability. The study requires biological fluids - blood, saliva, urine, amniotic fluid or scrapings from the mucous layer of the cervix or urethra. DNA diagnostics also helps to establish the type of microorganism and its quantitative ratio at the time of sampling.
- The Digin test is a modern, highly sensitive analysis that allows you to assign a virus to one of the first strains and determine its oncogenicity. To analyze for papilloma, it is necessary to scrape off the vagina or urethra. A doctor interprets the results obtained. The Digin test allows you to detect the concentration of the virus, suggesting a high risk of degenerating altered cells into cancer cells. Therefore, this study is necessary to prescribe the most effective preventive treatment.
In case of positive test results or suspicious results, a second diagnosis is prescribed. It allows you to evaluate the results of treatment and accurately determine if a person is infected with HPV.
But even with negative results, anyone should be periodically examined, if possible, since he may be infected with the virus at any time.
Aspects of the survey among women
Papillomavirus diagnosis in women has its own characteristics. Most informative is scrapings taken qualitatively from the zone of visible changes and from the cervical canal.
The material is obtained using a special brush, at the same time a smear is taken for cytology. In some cases, a universal medical explorer can be used for sampling. The material should not be taken during menstruation, as it will show unreliable results.
Only cytology is assigned to gynecologist patients under the age of thirty. The detection of HPV before the age of 30 is not informative - it is believed that infection in young people progresses in secret.
After 30 years, cytology is prescribed in combination with tests for the papilloma virus. At this time, it is important not to waste the moment showing the decline of normal cells in cancer cells.
The role of genotyping?
Genotyping is a laboratory determination of the type of virus. There are several advantages to such a study, namely:
- Detect several types of viruses at once.
- Determination of the degree of HPV oincogenicity. Cervical cancer is believed to occur if a woman has HPV types 16 and 18.
- Identify the possibility of re-infection from persistent (chronic) infection during repeated tests.
Identification of oncogenic strains allows the physician to select the treatment regimen that will provide the maximum antiviral effect on the body and provide preventive prevention of the development of cancers.
Re-genotyping demonstrates the effectiveness of therapy, since re-infection with the same strain is not possible.
Price for tests
The cost of testing for the presence of human papilloma virus in the body depends on the scheduled examination.
Traditional PCR diagnostics in most clinics are inexpensive. The same method of determining some types of virus and its quantitative presence in the body is already more expensive. Highest cost of Dijin test.